What is a system? A system is a network of interdependent components that work together to try to accomplish the aim of the system.

A system must have an aim. Without an aim, there is no system. The aim of the system must be clear to everyone in the system. The aim must include plans for the future.

The aim is a value judgment… Management of a system therefore requires knowledge of the interrelationships between all of the components within the system and of the people that work in it… The secret is cooperation between components toward the aim of the organization.

We cannot afford the destructive effect of competition

Deming WE 1994 ‘The New Economics: For Industry, Government, Education’ MIT Press: Massachusetts p50