To echo Ohno, our first step has to be concerned with understanding. It was Ohno’s favourite word:

I believe it [understanding] has a specific meaning – to approach an objective positively and comprehend its nature.

Careful inspection of any production area reveals waste and room for improvement. No one can understand manufacturing by just walking through the work area and looking at it. We have to see each area’s role and function in the overall picture.

(Ohno T 1988 ‘Toyota Production System’ Productivity Press: Portland, Oregon. p57)

Ohno taught by having his managers study the system.