Some people will tell you that quality or lean is all about the removal of waste. They may encourage you to have a ‘black-bag Friday’ where waste is put in the bag. But what happens next?

There is little point in attacking waste; we need to attack its causes. When managers discover that the primary causes are in the way work is designed and managed, they realise that they – in particular the way they think – is the primary cause.

As thinking is the primary cause of waste, isn’t it better to change thinking?