TQM – ‘total quality management’ was born in the 1980s. Phil Crosby had been doing interesting work with quality ideas and General Motors wanted to take his ideas and spread them across the company. So the might of GM’s training and development function was employed.

It meant ‘quality’ became a ‘training’ thing.

But ‘quality’ is a different theory about how to design and manage work. It requires re-thinking management.

Training won’t help people rethink management.

TQM avoided the theory problem. That’s why it was popular and also why it failed.