There are three primary measures for any system: service, revenue and efficiency.

The purpose of any system should be to create value for customers by the most efficient means and hence grow revenues and market-share.

Other measures in a system should relate to these primary measures. For example, process capability will relate to combinations of service, efficiency or revenue according to the process being measured.

These three primary measures are lagging measures, they don’t help you with how to act (but they may cause you to shout down the hierarchy).

You could add a fourth: Culture, and that’s a lagging measure too.

Capability measures are leading measures, as you improve your capability, the lagging measures look after themselves. As you get used to working with leading measures, you learn about the relationship between the two.