Students in schools of business in America are taught that there is a profession of management; that they are ready to step into top jobs. This is a cruel hoax. Most students have had no experience in production or sales.

To work on the factory floor with pay equal to half what he hoped to get upon receipt of the M.B.A., just to get experience, is a horrible thought to an M.B.A., not the American way of life.

As a consequence, he struggles on, unaware of his limitations, or unable to face the need to fill in the gaps. The results are obvious.

Deming 1982 ‘Out of the Crisis’ (First MIT edition 2000 p130)